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Takayuki Izumi '16The Canadian Government’s Political Ambitions behind the Japanese Canadian Internment.

Japanese immigration to Canada can be traced back to 1877. As the Japanese Canadian population grew, anti-Japanese sentiments among Canadian whites increased, which motivated the Canadian government to restrict Japanese Canadians. After Pearl Harbor, the government began the Japanese removal policy, but the purpose was not to achieve national security but to gain public support. Japanese Canadians were relocated into internment camps and forced to undergo harsh living conditions. The approach to the end of WWII did not lead to the end of restrictions in Canada, but because of the US’s emancipation of Japanese American and decreased anti-Japanese sentiments, the Canadian government finally released Japanese Canadians in 1949. After a few decades, in 1988, the Canadian government announced the official apology to Japanese Canadians. This was not the result of Japanese Canadians’ lobbying campaign. The official apology was announced because the government needed Japanese Canadians’ votes to win the federal election. In addition, in order to survive within the new global economy, the government wanted to erase the history of racial discrimination and establish the identity of a multinational state.

Hikaru Takeyama '17Controversy over The Nanjing Massacre: Iris Chang’s "The Rape of Nanking" and Masaaki Tanaka’s "What Really Happened in Nanking."

In 1997, The Rape of Nanking: The Forgotten Holocaust of World War II, written by Iris Chang, was published in the US. It was one of the first English books to introduce the Nanjing Massacre to the Western world. In response to The Rape of Nanking, Masaaki Tanaka’s What Really Happened in Nanking: The Refutation of a Common Myth was published in 2000. Against Chang’s depiction of Japanese aggression toward Chinese people, Tanaka claims that the Nanjing Massacre never happened. Although the arguments of both authors are quite different in terms of the death toll and the depiction of Japanese and Chinese people, they have three similarities: neither of them was a professional historian; their resources were limited due to their lack of language skills; both authors victimized the people of their own countries. Their perception of the Nanjing Massacre and use of resources are tied to the purposes of their publications. Whereas Chang aims to pass down Chinese collective memory to the next generation, Tanaka aspires to regain Japanese national pride by denying the wartime history of Japanese aggression. Therefore, their ultimate purpose was not to write the incident itself but to tell “right” history based on their nationality and beliefs. 

Christopher Looper '18The Native American Mascot: Celebration or Defamation?

The usage of Native American mascots and nicknames continues to fuel debate over possible racism and misrepresentation in American sports. The opinions of effected Native American tribes are often overlooked or intentionally ignored, regardless of their position on the issue. For example, the team owner of the Washington “Redskins” has repeatedly stated that he would never change the team’s nickname, even if he were convinced it was offensive. Tribal representatives who have come out against certain team nicknames for being offensive often also believe that there are sports teams whose mascot and nickname are inoffensive. The response of tribal leaders suggests that taking a name or image from Native American culture is not always offensive and can be done in good faith. In general, there are three factors that are used to determine whether or not a mascot or nickname is offensive: permission, dialogue, and characterization. By accounting for these three factors, teams with Native American mascots or nicknames could avoid using offensive misrepresentation of Native Americans.

Min Rui Lee '19Starbucks in China.

Starbucks has brought a new lifestyle to the Chinese. This paper analyzes the popularity and impact of Starbucks in China, which now operates more than a thousand stores in the country. First, the paper looks into Starbucks’ reasons for entering the China market and how Starbucks reaches out to the Chinese. Next, factors that made Starbucks the choice of the Chinese are analyzed. Lastly, Starbucks’ competitors, challenges, and future prospects in China are reviewed. Starbucks has a bright future as it continues to have successful partnerships with a couple of companies in China. Starbucks definitely is popular and has impacted the coffee and tea culture in China, but the effect of the impact is uncertain, in terms of positive or negative effects. Overall, the amount of tea consumption is still higher than coffee consumption, and China still remains the biggest tea consumer and exporter in the world. The coffee market still has a long way to go if it plans to overtake the tea market.